FPV Glossary and Acronyms Defined
QuadPartPicker's Glossary of FPV Terminology and Acronyms
Beginners learning about FPV are almost always going to be overwhelmed by the FPV and drone-specific terms, acronyms, lingo. Are you getting into FPV? Bookmark this page!
This is our running list of commonly-used terminology, definitions, and further reading.
- 4-in-1, as it relates to ESCs, is a common type of ESC that incorporates 4 ESCs on a single board. These are typically mounted on a flight controller rather than mounted on a quad's arms.
- 4-in-1, as it relates to radios and radio modules, is a type of radio transmitter than includes RF chips from 4 manufacturers that support many 2.4GHz radio protocols including, but not limited to, Spektrum DSM/DSMX, FrSky, FlySky, and Futaba SFHSS. See more about compatible radio protocols in the 4-in-1 RF chip.
A accelerometer is a device that typically comes integrated with a flight controller that measures acceleration speed. The data from the accelerometer can be displayed on the goggle's OSD or used to facilitate semi-autonomous functions.
Short for acrobatic, Acro mode (or rate mode), is a flight mode most consider as fully-manual flying. In Acro mode, the quad responds only to the pilot's inputs from the radio. Acro mode can be preset or toggled on the quad's radio.
Above Ground Level (AGL)
Above ground level, or AGL, is a measurement of altitude to describe an object's height above the ground. AGL is commonly used along with mean sea level (MSL) to describe the height of a plane, quad, or other object in the air.
Air mode is a feature in BetaFlight that allows pilots to control a quad's pitch, roll, and yaw while in free fall with zero throttle input. This is a great feature for freestyle pilots because typically, when throttle is at zero, the props either stop or spin at the same speeds which limits maneuverability.
AIO, or All-in-One, typically refers to flight controllers that come with an ESC, video transmitter, and/or radio receiver integrated or in a stack. Find AIO flight controllers on QuadPartPicker.
All Up Weight (AUW)
All up weight refers to the total weight, usually in grams, of your quad with everything attached including batteries, camera, and other payloads. This metric is used to calculate thrust-to-weight ratio. Learn more about how AUW affects a quad.
Alternating Current (AC)
AC, or alternating current, is the type of electricity that comes out of your typical power outlets. In FPV, this primarily relates to LiPo battery chargers. AC battery chargers are chargers with a built-in power supply that allow you to plug in directly to outlets to charge without a separate AC power supply.
Analog typically refers to pilots that fly with analog video transmitters (as opposed to digital). The goggles may have digital screens, but the video transmitter sends signals in analog. Think VCR-tape quality. Analog is cheaper, widely available, and superior when it comes to signal latency. Read more about analog VTXs.
Angle mode is a flight mode where the quad uses the accelerometer and gyro to self-level and is limited to an adjustable tilt angle. The quad cannot do flips and rolls in angle mode because the tilt limitation. Compared to acro mode, angle mode makes the quad easier to pilot. Angle mode can be preset or toggled on the quad's radio.
ArduPilot is an open-source autopilot software platform that, when combined with a GPS module, allows for custom programming for UAVs, including quadcopters. These programs include return to home, hold position, and auto take off and landing.
Autopilot is a generic term for a feature where a quad has the ability to do software-driven flight using the quad's instruments, rather than user input. See ArduPilot for a commonly-used platform for quadcopters.
Auxiliary Channels (AUX)
Auxiliary channels are all of the switches and dials on your radio controller that aren't the control sticks. These can be programmed to do many things including arming and disarming your quad and changing flight modes.
Avatar is a proprietary HD digital video transmission system created by Walksnail / Caddx released in 2022 to compete with DJI's video transmission system. Currently, FatShark and Walksnail create goggles and video transmitters that support this system. Find Avatar VTXs on QuadPartPicker.
American wire gauge, or AWG, is a measurement for electrical wiring. This type of wiring is typically found on pigtails or the connectors from the quad to the battery. The larger the number, the smaller the wire.
Balance, or parallel, charging is the act of charging two or more batteries using a single power source. This is usually done using a balance charging board that connects to the main power source. Find parallel charging boards on QuadPartPicker.
A band refers to the line of video transmission within its radio frequency. Every frequency has several bands, and every band has several channels. Bands are separated like this to separate video feeds allowing pilots to fly near each other without interrupting each others' video signals.
A bando, short for abandoned, is an abandoned building popular with freestyle pilots because these buildings typically have a lot of obstacles and gaps for pilots to fly through.
Barometric Altimeter (Baro)
A baro, or barometric altimeter, is a device typically integrated into flight controllers that measures altitude using barometric pressure. The data from the baro can be displayed on the goggle's OSD or used to facilitate semi-autonomous functions.
Battery Eliminator Circuit (BEC)
A battery eliminator circuit, or BEC, is a voltage regulator typically found on a quad's ESC, flight controller, and/or video transmitter that provides constant voltage to parts not directly powered like the receiver or FPV camera.
Betaflight is the most popular flight control platform for FPV quadcopters. The firmware can be flashed on almost all flight controllers, and it can be configured using Betaflight software from a computer, or wirelessly from a phone app.
Binding refers to the act of pairing a radio transmitter to a quad's receiver, or a goggle/goggle's video receiver to a quad's video transmitter.
Bind and Fly (BNF)
Bind and fly, or BNF, typically refers to pre-built quads with a receiver included. Sometimes BNF is sometimes used interchangeably with PNP. Ensure that you have all the necessary parts for your pre-built quad. Find pre-built BNF quads on QuadPartPicker.
Brushed motors in FPV are older motors that are now typically only found on smaller quads like tinywhoops. They use wire coils acting as an electromagnet that changes polarity and makes the motor move. Find brushed motors on QuadPartPicker.
Brushless motors in FPV make up the majority of motors today. Unlike brushed motors, brushless motors have a magnet that's electronically controlled to switch polarity. Brushless motors tend to be more efficient, have higher speed ranges, and are more durable. Find brushless motors on QuadPartPicker.
A buzzer is a device added to a quad that beeps or buzzes when activated or in the event of a crash. Some are powered independently, while others are powered by the quad. Find buzzers on QuadPartPicker.
Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS)
Beyond visual line of sight, or BVLOS, refers to UAVs that operate at a range where the pilot cannot see the UAV. FPV operations in the US today are in a gray area because flying FPV is not considered line of sight (where you can see the drone from the ground), but is allowed if a visual observer (VO) is present. The FAA is considering new rules for how UAVs operate in BVLOS.
CC2500 is a RF chip and a common option in radios and radio modules. It supports multiple radio protocols like FrSky and Futaba SFHSS among others. See more about compatible radio protocols in the CC2500 RF chip.
C rating, as it applies to LiPo batteries, refers to how much current a battery can deliver to the quad's ESC and distribute to the motors and other parts that require power. The higher the C rating, the more amps the motors can draw resulting in more responsiveness.
Capacitors, or caps, are parts soldered onto ESC's power pads to reduce noise resulting in a cleaner video signals and flight dynamics. Caps are used because they are a low effort method to reduce noise created from the electrical currents running through all of the different parts in your quad that negatively impacts the quad's performance. Find capacitors on QuadPartPicker.
Cells, or S count, refers to the number of cells, or the individual batteries inside a battery pack, that make up an entire battery pack. In FPV, lipo batteries typically come in 1S to 6S. Find lipo batteries by cell count on QuadPartPicker.
A cinelifter is a type of quad that is designed to carry larger cameras like the Blackmagic Pocket and Red Komodo. Cinelifters typically use propellers that are 6" or larger and have 8 motors.
A cinewhoop is any kind of ducted quad that's primarily made for cinematic shots. Cinewhoops tend to be heavier and less powerful than freestyle quads that make them good for smooth and slower shots. Find cinewhoop frames on QuadPartPicker. And find pre-built cinewhoops on QuadPartPicker.
Channel refers to a specific sections of a band within a radio frequency. Further separating bands, channels allow users of the same band to have different video feeds when flying nearby each other. Channels can be configured on the VTX, goggles, and/or radio.
Command Line Interface (CLI)
Command Line Interface, or CLI, is a mode within Betaflight that allows the user to directly input settings and parameters without using the regular interface. Many people have their own custom CLI dumps, a set of CLI commands, with their preferred settings. Manufacturers also host their own CLI dumps available for downloads as backups to their pre-configured quads.
Crossfire is a proprietary 915/868MHz long-range radio protocol created by TBS. People who use Crossfire find it to be easy to install and configure. Learn more about radio protocols.
Clockwise and counter clockwise refers to a propeller's rotational direction. Beginners typically find issues when installing propellers in the wrong direction. Each quad uses two clockwise and two counter clockwise props. They must be installed correctly for the quad to liftoff the ground. The direction is typically etched on top of the prop.
Direct Current (DC)
DC, or direct current, is the type of electricity that typically comes from smaller power sources like a large battery. In FPV, this primarily relates to LiPo battery chargers. Most chargers are DC that require a AC power supply if you want to plug it in, but DC chargers can also be powered by a large lipo battery suitable for field charging.
Device Firmware Update (DFU)
Device firmware update, or DFU, is a mode that can be set on a flight controller allowing for firmware flashing.
Diversity refers to a radio receiver or video receiver that incorporates two receivers and two antennas. This allows your receiver to get signals in both receivers and give you the best signal of the two.
Digital in FPV typically refers to HD video transmission, as opposed to analog. This includes systems like DJI, HDZero, and Avatar that transmit digital signals with at least 720p resolution video.
DJI is one of the world's largest drone companies. In FPV, DJI pioneered HD video transmission with their Air Unit and Goggles. They also manufacture the DJI FPV drone, and the Avata cinematic drone.
A drone refers to a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can be controlled remotely and/or has autonomous features that allow it to be flown via software
DShot is a widely-used ESC protocol for communication between a flight controller and ESC to control how fast a quad's motors spin.
DSM, or Digital Spectrum Modulation, is a radio protocol created by Spektrum that is supported by Spektrum and 4-in-1 radio transmitters.
Dry weight refers to a quad's weight without the battery and payload.
A quad's ESC, or electronic speed controller, controls the speed of the motors. The ESC takes the radio's signals from the flight controller, draws power from the battery, and tells the motors how fast to spin. Think of the ESC as a quad's gearbox. Find ESCs on QuadPartPicker.
Expo, or exponential, or RC Expo in Betaflight, refers to a quad rate setting that increases or decreases the sensitivity of the radio's input near the center of the sticks where finer movements are made. Expo can be set for the roll, pitch, or yaw. As expo increases, sensitivity reduces, and vice versa.
ExpressLRS, or ELRS, is a long-range, open-source radio protocol that's widely accepted as one of the best radio protocols for FPV as of 2022. It ranks the best in terms of range, signal penetration, and price when compared to all other radio protocols used in FPV.
F1 - F7
F1, F2, F3, F4, and F7 are all types processors found on flight controllers. As of 2022, F4 and F7 are the most commonly used. F7 FCs have more processing power, memory and UARTs than F4 FCs. Find flight controllers by processor type on QuadPartPicker.
The FAA, Federal Aviation Administration, is the United States governing agency for aviation responsible for controlling all US airspace and flight regulations as it pertains to aircraft including FPV quads and drones.
Failsafe is what a quad does when it's receiver loses signal from the transmitter. Failsafe can be programmed in Betaflight or radio. Failsafe can be programmed to hold the last stick position or stop the throttle with the goal of minimizing your quad's risk and danger to its surrounding area including people.
FETs, or field-effect transistors, are a set of components on ESCs that allow the ESC to quickly change the speed of a motor by controlling the flow of current from the battery to the motors. In FPV, larger ESCs come with larger FETs that can handle more current. The larger the FETs, the heavier, but more durable the ESC is.
Flight Controller (FC)
A flight controller, or FC, is a circuit board with a processor and other components that sends and receives signals across your quad. Think of it as the brain, or CPU, of a quad. Find flight controllers on QuadPartPicker.
Flight Control Modes
Flight control modes refers to the different flying modes that can be set or toggled. The main flight control modes are Acro (rate), Angle, and Horizon. See definitions of each in this issue.
Field of View (FOV)
Field of View, of FOV, is the angle of the full image you can see through the FPV camera in your FPV goggles measured in degrees. The wider the FOV, the more you can see, and vice versa.
Firmware are a set of instructions that allow hardware to start up, connected to configuration software and be configured. In FPV, flight controllers, ESCs, and video transmitters all have their own firmware. In some cases, firmware needs to be updated or flashed prior to use and is typically done by connecting the quad part to a computer.
First Person View (FPV)
First person view, or FPV, is the FPV hobby itself. In radio control, it typically refers to anything radio controlled that has a camera allowing the user to see what they're controlling from a first person perspective. This can include RC fixed wing planes and cars.
Flow in FPV typically refers to the satisfying movement of a quad, especially as it pertains to freestyle flight. Flow is generally smooth, fast, and technical all at the same time.
FPV camera is a FPV quad part that connects and sends video to the video transmitter, which sends the signal to a video receiver and your goggles. Find FPV Cameras on QuadPartPicker.
A quad's frame is what holds all of the parts of a quad together. The frame's design and size heavily impacts how it will fly and what parts will be required. The frame is typically one of the first considerations when deciding to build or buy a quad. Find frames based on type and size on QuadPartPicker.
Freestyle is a type of FPV flying focused on acrobatics and tricks. Freestyle is also commonly used to describe a type of frame or quad. Find freestyle frames on QuadPartPicker. Find pre-built freestyle quads on QuadPartPicker.
Frequency in FPV typically refers to radio frequency and video transmission frequency. The most common radio frequencies in FPV are 915/868MHz and 2.4GHz. The most common video transmission frequency in FPV is 5.8 GHz.
FrSky is a radio protocol and brand that creates the most widely available radio receivers, the XM+ and R-XSR. FrSky receivers are very commonly found on pre-built quads.
A gap is a hole or small opening that FPV pilots fly through.
A gimbal is a mechanism with a camera attached that stabilizes footage. Large cinematic drones often have a gimbal installed. Many DJI drones also have a built-in gimbal.
Ghost is a 2.4GHz long-range radio protocol created by ImmersionRC. Ghost is often compared with TBS's Tracer protocol.
GND, or Ground, is the ground / negative of a DC electrical circuit and is typically relevant when soldering or wiring a quad's electronics.
Goggles, or FPV goggles, is a headset with built in screen(s) used by FPV pilots to see the image from the quad's perspective. Goggles can be analog or digital, typically defined as the type video that the video receiver processes. Some goggles come with a video receiver, while others require a separate video receiver to be installed.
GPS in FPV, typically refers to a GPS module that can be added to a quad to program additional features like return-to-home and position hold.
Ground effect in FPV is when turbulence from a quad's propellers bounce off the ground in low altitude flights that causes the quad to bounce up and down uncontrollably.
Gyroflow is a free and open-source video stabilization software made for FPV that utilizes the gyro data from a camera or flight controller and combines it with raw footage to efficiently stabilize video footage.
A gyroscope, or gyro, is a device that typically comes integrated with a flight controllers that measures a quad's angular velocity. It tells the flight controller how the quad is angled and how fast it's rotating. Some flight controllers have more than 1 gyro for more accuracy.
H7 is a newer type of flight controller processor, seen as the successor to F7 flight controllers.
HDZero is a HD video transmitter, receiver, and goggle designer and manufacture. It's HD video system has the lowest latency among the other systems. Originally, their technology was licensed to FatShark called Shark Byte, but later spun out it's own brand and now manufactures a suite of FPV video transmission products.
Horizon mode is a flight mode where the quad uses the accelerometer and gyro to self-level. The quad is not limited to a tilt angle and can do flips and rolls. Horizon mode can be preset or toggled on the quad's radio.
A IMU, or inertial measurement unit, is a device typically found on flight controllers that processes data from the gyro and accelerometer. These are usually calibrated prior to a first flight to ensure accuracy of the IMU, gyro, and/or accelerometer.
IPEX, or IPX or IPEX4, is a type of antenna connector typically found on radio receivers and video transmitters due to their small connector size. IPEX is often used interchangeably with U.FL, but note that only IPEX4 is the same as U.FL.
Jello, or the jello effect, or rolling shutter, is when a camera's image is skewed due to camera vibrations. Jello is often caused by electronics or prop vibrations, and can usually be solved or lessened by soft mounting the electronics and camera.
JST is a generic type of wire connector typically used in FPV electronics. Beware that not all JST connectors are made equal. There are multiple mounts with multiple pins.
KISS, short for keep-it-simple-stupid, is a proprietary firmware for flight controllers and ESCs made by Flydruino.
Kv refers to a motor's RPM per volt with no load. In FPV, motors of the same size often come have several variations. The lower Kv option is typically paired with a LiPo battery with more cells, and vice versa. Learn more about motor Kv on QuadPartPicker.
Latency in FPV refers to the delay in the time from when the image from the FPV camera is sent to the video transmitter and video receiver. Analog video typically has the lowest latency compared to HD video transmission.
A LC Filter is a combination of an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) that suppresses noise from the motors and ESCs which can negatively impact the FPV camera's video feed.
LiPo, or lithium polymer, batteries are the most common type of battery chemistry used in FPV due to their light weight and discharge rate. Find LiPo batteries on QuadPartPicker.
LiHv, or high voltage lithium polymer, batteries are a newer type of LiPo battery that can handle higher voltages than typical LiPo batteries. Find LiHv batteries on QuadPartPicker.
Li-ion, or lithium ion, batteries are batteries that are typically used on long range FPV quads. Li-ion batteries tend to carry high capacity, but smaller discharge rates. Find li-ion batteries on QuadPartPicker.
Line of Sight (LOS)
Line of sight, or LOS, refers to UAVs that operate at a range where the pilot of visual observer can see the UAV from the ground. Most drone operations today are operated using line of sight. In FPV in the United States, technically all flights have to be operated line of sight with a visual observer.
Left hand circular polarized, or LHCP, is a type of circular polarization for antennas. As long as the antennas on your video transmitter and receiver, there's no different choosing LHCP or RHCP.
Link Quality (LQ)
Link quality, or LQ, is the percentage of data that's delivered to the quad's receiver without corruption. LQ can be displayed on your goggle's OSD and is one way to indicate how healthy your radio signal is.
mAh, or milliamp hours, is a measure of a battery's capacity. The larger the mAh, the more capacity and heavier the battery is, and vice versa.
Mean Sea Level (MSL)
Mean sea level, or MSL, is a measurement of altitude to describe an object's true altitude in relation to standard sea level. MSL is commonly used along with above ground level (AGL) to describe the height of a plane, quad, or other object in the air.
MMCX is a type of antenna connector typically found on radio receivers and video transmitters due to their small connector size.
Mode 1 / 2
Modes 1 and 2 refer to the layout of the sticks that control throttle, pitch, yaw, and roll on a radio transmitter. Most pilots fly Mode 2.
A quad's motors are fed power to spin propellers thereby lifting the quad into the air.
MultiWii, or MWC, is an open source, general purpose flight controller software that allows flight configuration using a Arduino and a variety of gyros and accelerometers. Learn more about MultiWii.
A naked GoPro is a GoPro that's stripped of all extraneous parts except the parts that allow it to record video. They are typically used to lighten AUW on smaller quads like 2.5" cinewhoops. Learn more about naked GoPros on QuadPartPicker.
On Screen Display (OSD)
On screen display, or OSD, are the data and indicators overlayed in a FPV goggles' video feed. Most flight controllers come with an OSD chip that can be configured in Betaflight to show various things like battery voltage, link quality, altitude, distance, and angle among much more.
Pack, short for battery pack, typically refers to a quad's battery.
Part 107 is the FAA's Small UAS Rule that details commercial uses for unmanned aircraft. It also refers to the certification a pilot needs from the FAA to conduct any commercial (non-personal, non-hobby) flights.
A quad's payload refers to all of the additional weight a quad is carries in flight, not including the battery. In FPV, this is typically an action camera like a GoPro.
A pigtail, in FPV, typically refers to the battery connector cable that is soldered onto an ESC. Pigtails also refer to an antenna adapters that allows use antennas with different connectors. Find pigtails on QuadPartPicker.
Pilot in Command (PIC)
Pilot in Command, or PIC, is the FAA's definition of the pilot controlling a quad.
Pitch refers to a quad's propeller's traveling distance in one complete 360° spin, typically measured in inches. Generally, longer pitch length means more speed at the expense of more power draw, while shorter pitch length means more responsiveness.
Plug and Play (PNP)
Plug and play, or PNP, typically refers to pre-built quads without a receiver included. Sometimes PNP is used interchangeably with BNF. Ensure that you have all the necessary parts for your pre-built quad. Find pre-built PNP quads on QuadPartPicker.
Polarization is the way a radio signal travels from the antenna. Many video transmitter and receiver antennas are circular polarized, either right hand or left hand. The best practice is to have the antennas on both the video transmitter and video receiver match polarization direction. RHCP to RHCP, and LHCP to LHCP.
Power Distribution Board (PDB)
A power distribution board, or PDB, is a quad part that is either standalone or integrated with 4-in-1 ESCs that transfers power from the battery to the ESCs, and provide power to other quad parts and peripherals.
Powertrain, in FPV, refers to all of the parts of a quad that are responsible for lifting the quad into the air. These are the battery, ESC, motors and propellers. Learn more about selecting FPV powertrain parts on QuadPartPicker.
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)
PID, or proportional integral derivative, refers to the algorithm used for multi-rotor flight. PIDs come into play when tuning a quad for optimal performance and changing flight characteristics.
A quad's propellers, or props, are attached to the quad's motors that help the quad fly and stay in the air.
Prop wash describes the turbulent air created by a quad's propellers which negatively impacts the air below the quad requiring more power and throttle to control the quad, especially during descents.
Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
PPM, or pulse position modulation, is an analog radio signal that uses a single wire for every channel. Most FPV pilots use SBUS instead of PPM or PWM, which utilizes digital signal.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
PWM, or pulse width modulation, is an analog radio signal that uses a wire for each channel to send and receive signals. Most FPV pilots use SBUS instead of PWM or PPM, which utilizes a digital signal.
A quadcopter is a UAV drone with 4 motors. A quad typically refers to a FPV quad.
QuadPartPicker is the only online FPV resource that allows users to spec out their own custom quad by showing users parts based on compatibility across various retailers.
Rate, or RC rate, refers to a setting that is modified when tuning a quad. Rate determines how quickly the quad rotates on each of their axis. The higher the rate, the more quickly the quad reacts, and vice versa. Rate is similar to sensitivity in first-person video games.
Radio Control (RC)
Generally, radio control refers to the radio control hobby. FPV is a niche within radio control where quadcopters are controlled via radio control.
Radio Frequency (RF)
Radio frequency in FPV typically refers to radio frequency and video transmission frequency. The most common radio frequencies in FPV are 915/868MHz and 2.4GHz. The most common video transmission frequency in FPV is 5.8 GHz.
A receiver is a radio control component that listens for signals from a radio transmitter and sends the signals to the quadcopter's flight controller to manipulate the quad based on the user's radio inputs. Find radio receivers on QuadPartPicker.
ReelSteady is a video stabilization software made for FPV that utilizes the gyro data from a GoPro to stabilize GoPro footage. It was originally created separate of GoPro, then acquired by GoPro and integrated into GoPro's Player App as a paid add-on.
Remote ID (RID)
RemoteID is a new set of FAA rules that impact all drone operations. Above all, it stipulates that almost all drones will require a new module that transmits identifying information like position, altitude, speed and registration information locally. Learn more about RemoteID and what it means for FPV on QuadPartPicker.
Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)
RSSI, or received signal strength indication, is radio signal quality measured in decibels. It depicts how strong or weak a signal is. If signal is too weak, the pilot is risking losing signal, and therefore, control of the quad. RSSI can be configured to be shown on the goggle's OSD or radio transmitter's screen.
Ready to fly (RTF)
Ready to fly, or RTF, refers to pre-built quads that include everything a pilot needs to start flying including the quad, radio transmitter, and goggles. Find pre-built RTF kits on QuadPartPicker.
Return to Home (RTH)
Return to home, or RTH, is a semi-autonomous feature in GPS-equipped quadcopters that allows the quad to fly back to where it took off when triggered.
Right hand circular polarized, or RHCP, is a type of circular polarization for antennas. As long as the antennas on your video transmitter and receiver, there's no different choosing RHCP or LHCP.
Rip it is FPV slang for taking off quickly.
RP-SMA is a type of antenna connector. Find RP-SMA antennas on QuadPartPicker.
S (Cell Count)
S, or cell count, refers to the number of cells that are attached together to form a full battery. In FPV, typical cell counts are: 1S, 2S, 3S, 4S, 5S, and 6S. Find LiPo batteries by cell count on QuadPartPicker.
Send it is FPV slang for taking off quickly.
Smart Audio (SA)
Smart audio is a video transmitter protocol that allows pilots to change their video transmitter settings like output power or channel from their goggles or radio. Many VTXs have some form or smart audio built-in. If a VTX does not have this feature, changing VTX settings is done physically on the VTX itself.
SBUS, S.BUS, or Serial Bus, is a common digital radio receiver protocol used by FrSky and Futaba.
SMA is a type of antenna connector. Find SMA antennas on QuadPartPicker.
A spotter, or visual observer, is someone who aids the pilot in command and serves as a second set of eyes to monitor the drone or quad from the ground.
A stack, or FC stack, refers to flight controllers that come with an ESC and/or video transmitter stacked on top of one another. Find flight controller stacks on QuadPartPicker.
Standoffs are long hardware bits that create separation between a quad's frame top plate and bottom plate, as well as separate between the parts of a flight controller's stack.
A stator is the stationary component of electromagnetic circuits inside a motor. Stator size is commonly used to demonstrate how large or small and how powerful a motor is. Stator size is defined by its width and height. Learn more about motor stator sizes.
Super rate refers to a setting that is modified when tuning a quad. Super rate determines how sensitive the quad is around the middle of the radio's sticks, as opposed to rate, which determines sensitivity around the entire stick's movements.
Telemetry in FPV refers to a two-way data stream where a user can send signals and receive signals. Sent signals are used to control a quad, while received signals can include data like signal quality, altitude, and anything else that's displayed on the goggle's OSD or radio.
Throttle is the control stick on your radio that controls thrust.
Thrust is the measurement of force generated from a quad's motors and propellers depicted in grams.
Tinywhoops are a class of quads that are the smallest out of all drones. They are usually ducted, great for beginners, and can take a lot of hits. Tinywhoops typically use 1" to 2" props. Find tinywhoop frames on QuadPartPicker. Find pre-built tinywhoops on QuadPartPicker.
Toothpicks are a class of quads that are ultra-light and typically have skinny and long arms, and use AIO 25x25mm mounted flight controllers and ESCs. Find toothpick frames on QuadPartPicker. Find pre-built toothpicks on QuadPartPicker.
Tracer is a 2.5GHz long-range radio protocol created by TBS. Tracer is often compared with ImmersionRC's Ghost protocol.
TVL, or TV lines, is a measure of analog video quality. In FPV, it's used to show the expected video quality from an analog FPV camera.
Transmitter, or TX, is the chip inside a radio or radio module that's responsible for transmitting your radio's inputs. More broadly, transmitter refers to the radio.
Turtle mode is a flight mode that allows the pilot to flip a quad over when it's overturned in the event of a crash.
U.FL is a type of antenna connector typically found on radio receivers and video transmitters due to their small connector size. U.FL is often used interchangeably with IPEX, but not that only IPEX4, the most common IPEX connector, is the same as U.FL
Ultra-light refers to a class of quads that are built to be as light-weight as possible. It is commonly used along with toothpick. Ultra-light quads are also typical for long-range FPV operations. Find ultra-light frames on QuadPartPicker. Find ultra-light pre-built quads on QuadPartPicker.
Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (UART)
UART, or universal asynchronous receiver / transmitter, is a serial communication port. These are typically found flight controllers and used to connect components to a quad like receivers.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
A UAV, or unmanned aerial vehicle, describes any kind of aircraft that don't have a pilot on board, including FPV quads.
Video Receiver (VRX)
A video receiver is a device that is added to, or built into goggles that allow it to receive and process video data from the quad's video transmitter to display on the goggles. Learn more about video receivers and goggles on QuadPartPicker.
Visual Observer (VO)
A visual observer, or VO, or spotter, is someone who aids the pilot in command and serves as a second set of eyes to monitor the drone or quad from the ground.
Video Transmitter (VTX)
A video transmitter is a component on a quad that sends the FPV camera's video feed to the video receiver / goggles. Learn more about video transmitters on QuadPartPicker.
Walksnail is a subsidiary of FPV component manufacturer, Caddx. It created the Avatar video transmission system which is supported by the FatShark Dominator and Walksnail Avatar goggles.
A waiver, in FPV, refers to a FAA Part 107 waiver which is a document that can be requested by remote pilots that approves certain operations of unmanned aircraft outside of the general rules likes night time flying and over people and moving vehicles.
XT refers to a type of battery connector commonly used for FPV quads. The XT30 connector is commonly used for micro quads. The XT60 connector is commonly used for mini quads. And the XT90 connector is typically used for heavy quads like cinelifters.